### numbers

• Fractions
We say fractions like this:
1/8 one eighth , 3/7 three sevenths
2/5 two fifths, 11/16 eleven sixteenths
We normally use a singular verb after fractions below 1.
Three quarters of a ton is too much.
We use a plural noun with fractions and decimals over 1.
• Decimals
We say decimal fractions like this:
O'125 nought point one two five (NOT 0,125—nought comma one two five)
3.7 three point seven
• nought, zero, nil etc
The figure 0 is usually called nought in British English, and zero in American English.
When we say numbers one figure at a time, 0 is often called oh (like the letter 0).
My account number is four one three oh six.
In measurements of temperature, 0 is called zero.
Zero degrees Centigrade is thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit.
Zero scores in team games are called nil (American zero).
Zero in tennis and similar games is called love.
• Telephone numbers
We say each figure separately. When the same figure comes twice, we usually say double (British English only).
307 4922 three oh seven four nine double two.
• Kings and Queens
We say the numbers like this:
Henry the i Louis the Fourteenth
Henry VIII Louis XIV
• Floors
The ground floor of a British house is the first floor of an American house; the British first floor is the American second floor, etc.
GB
second floor first floor ground floor
 y IBM ip =i p| jo
US
third floor second floor first floor
• and
In British English, we use and between the hundreds and the tens in a number.
310 three hundred and ten (US three hundred ten)
5,642 five thousand, six hundred and forty-two
Note that in writing we use commas (,) to separate thousands.
• a and one
We can say a hundred or one hundred, a thousand or one thousand. One is more formal.
I want to live for a hundred years.
Pay Mr J Baron one thousand pounds, (on a cheque)
We only use a at the beginning of a number. Compare: a hundred three thousand one hundred We can use a with other measurement words. a pint a foot a mile.
• Plurals without-s
After a number or determiner, hundred, thousand, million and dozen have no final -s. Compare:
five hundred pounds hundreds of pounds
several thousand times It cost thousands
Other number expressions have no -s when they are used as adjectives.
a five-pound note a three-mile walk
• Measurements
We use be in measurements.
She's five feet eight (inches tall).
I'm sixty-eight kilos.
What shoe size are you?
In an informal style, we often use foot instead of feefwhen we talk about people's heights.
My father's six foot two.
• Money
1p one penny (informal: one p /pi:/) or a penny 5p five pence (informal: five p)
£3.75 three pounds seventy-five When we use sums of money as adjectives, we use singular forms. a five pound note (NOT a five-pounds note)
When expressions of measurement, amount and quantity are used as adjectives, they are normally singular.
a ten-mile walk (HOT a ten-miles walk)
six two-hour lessons
a three-month-old baby
We can use possessives in expressions of time.
a week's holiday four days ' journey
• there are . ..
When we count the number of people in a group, we often use the structure there are + number + of+ pronoun.
There are only seven of us here today.
There were twelve of us in my family.
• Spoken calculations
Common ways of calculating are:
2 + 2 = 4 two and two is/are four (informal)
two plus two equals four (formal)
7-4 = 3 four from seven is three (informal)
seven minus four equals three (formal)
3 x 4 = 12
three fours are twelve (informal)
three multiplied by four equals twelve (formal)
9 / 3 = 3
nine divided by three equals three
• 'copula1 verbs
• 'social' language
• (a) few and (a) little
• (be) used to + noun or... -ing
• (Great) Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England
• -ing form ('gerund')
• -ing form after to
• -ing form or infinitive?
• abbreviations
• above and over
• across and over
• across and through
• active verb forms
• actual(ly)
• after (conjunction)
• after all
• afternoon, evening and night
• ages
• ago
• all (of) with nouns and pronouns
• all and every
• all and whole
• all right
• all with verbs
• all, everybody and everything
• almost and nearly
• also, as well and too
• although and though
• among and between
• and
• and after try, wait, go etc
• another
• any (= 'it doesn't matter which')
• appear
• articles: a and an; pronunciation of the
• articles: a/an
• articles: countable and uncountable nouns
• articles: introduction
• articles: special rules and exceptions
• articles: talking in general
• articles: the
• articles: the difference between a/an and the
• as and like
• as if and as though
• as much/many ... as ...
• as well as
• as, because and since (reason)
• as, when and while (things happening at the same time)
• as...as ...
• at all
• at, in and on (place)
• at, in and on (time)
• be + infinitive
• be with auxiliary do
• be: progressive tenses
• because and because of
• before (conjunction)
• before (preposition) and in front of
• begin and start
• big, large, great and tall
• born
• borrow and lend
• both (of) with nouns and pronouns
• both with verbs
• both... and...
• bring and take
• British and American English
• but = except
• by: time
• can and could: ability
• can and could: forms
• can with remember, understand, speak, play, see, hear, feel, taste and smell
• can: permission, offers, requests and orders
• can: possibility and probability
• close and shut
• come and go
• comparison: comparative and superlative adjectives
• comparison: comparative and superlative adverbs
• comparison: much, far etc with comparatives
• comparison: using comparatives and superlatives
• conditional
• conjunctions
• contractions
• countable and uncountable nouns
• country
• dare
• dates
• determiners
• discourse markers
• do + -ing
• do and make
• do: auxiliary verb
• during and for
• during and in
• each and every
• each other and one another
• each: grammar
• either... or...
• either: determiner
• ellipsis (leaving words out)
• else
• emphasis
• emphatic structures with it and what
• enjoy
• enough
• even
• eventual(ly)
• ever
• every and every one
• except
• except and except for
• exclamations
• excuse me, pardon and sorry
• expect, hope, look forward, wait, want and wish
• explain
• fairly, quite, rather and pretty
• far and a long way
• farther and further
• fast
• feel
• fewer and less
• for + object + infinitive
• for, since, from, ago and before
• for: purpose
• future perfect
• future progressive
• future: introduction
• future: present progressive and going to
• future: shall and will (interpersonal uses)
• future: shall/will (predictions)
• future: simple present
• gender (masculine and feminine language)
• get (+ object) + verb form
• get and go: movement
• go ... -ing
• go meaning'become'
• go: been and gone
• half (of)
• hard and hardly
• have (got) to
• have (got): possession, relationships etc
• have + object + verb form
• have: actions
• have: auxiliary verb
• have: introduction
• hear and listen (to)
• help
• here and there
• holiday and holidays
• home
• hope
• how and what... like?
• if only
• if so and if not
• if-sentences with could and might
• if: ordinary tenses
• if: special tenses
• ill and sick
• imperative
• in and into (prepositions)
• in case
• in spite of
• indeed
• infinitive after who, what, how etc
• infinitive of purpose
• infinitive without to
• infinitive: negative, progressive, perfect, passive
• infinitive: use
• inversion: auxiliary verb before subject
• inversion: whole verb before subject
• irregular verbs
• it's time
• it: preparatory object
• it: preparatory subject
• last and the last
• let's
• letters
• likely
• long and for a long time
• look
• look (at), watch and see
• marry and divorce
• may and might: forms
• may and might: permission
• may and might: probability
• mind
• modal auxiliary verbs
• more (of): determiner
• most (of): determiner
• much (of), many (of): determiners
• much, many, a lot etc
• must and have to; mustn't, haven't got to, don't have to, don't need to and needn't
• must: deduction
• must: forms
• must: obligation
• names and titles
• nationality words
• need
• negative questions
• negative structures
• neither (of): determiner
• neither, nor and not... either
• neither... nor...
• next and nearest
• next and the next
• no and none
• no and not
• no and not a/not any
• no more, not any more, no longer, not any longer
• non-progressive verbs
• noun + noun
• numbers
• once
• one and you: indefinite personal pronouns
• one: substitute word
• other and others
• ought
• own
• participle clauses
• participles: 'present' and 'past' participles (-ing and -ed)
• passive structures: introduction
• passive verb forms
• past tense with present or future meaning
• past time: past perfect simple and progressive
• past time: past progressive
• past time: present perfect progressive
• past time: present perfect simple
• past time: simple past
• past time: the past and perfect tenses (introduction)
• perfect tenses with this is the first time..., etc
• personal pronouns (I, me, it etc)
• play and game
• possessive with determiners (a friend of mine, etc)
• possessive's: forms
• possessive's: use
• possessives: my and mine, etc
• prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs
• prepositions after particular words and expressions
• prepositions at the end of clauses
• prepositions before particular words and expressions
• prepositions: expressions without prepositions
• present tenses: introduction
• present tenses: present progressive
• present tenses: simple present
• progressive tenses with always
• punctuation: apostrophe
• punctuation: colon
• punctuation: comma
• punctuation: dash
• punctuation: quotation marks
• punctuation: semi-colons and full stops
• question tags
• questions: basic rules
• questions: word order in spoken questions
• quite
• real(ly)
• reflexive pronouns
• relative pronouns
• relative pronouns: what
• relative pronouns: whose
• relatives: identifying and non-identifying clauses
• remind
• reported speech and direct speech
• reported speech: orders, requests, advice etc
• reported speech: pronouns; 'here and now' words; tenses
• reported speech: questions
• requests
• say and tell
• see
• seem
• shall
• should
• should after why and how
• should and would
• should, ought and must
• should: (If I were you) I should ...
• similar words
• since (conjunction of time): tenses
• singular and plural: anybody etc
• singular and plural: irregular plurals
• singular and plural: plural expressions with singular verbs
• singular and plural: pronunciation of plural nouns
• singular and plural: singular words ending in -s
• singular and plural: singular words with plural verbs
• singular and plural: spelling of plural nouns
• slow(ly)
• small and little
• smell
• so am I, so do I etc
• so and not with hope, believe etc
• some and any
• some/any and no article
• some: special uses
• somebody and anybody, something and anything, etc
• sound
• spelling and pronunciation
• spelling: -ise and -ize
• spelling: -ly
• spelling: capital letters
• spelling: ch and tch, k and ck
• spelling: doubling final consonants
• spelling: final -e
• spelling: full stops with abbreviations
• spelling: hyphens
• spelling: ie and ei
• spelling: y and i
• subject and object forms
• subjunctive
• such and so
• suggest
• surely
• sympathetic
• take
• take (time)
• tall and high
• taste
• telephoning
• telling the time
• tenses in subordinate clauses
• that: omission
• the same
• there is
• think
• this and that
• too
• travel, journey and trip
• unless and if not
• until and by
• until and to
• used to + infinitive
• verbs with object complements
• verbs with two objects
• way
• weak and strong forms
• well
• when and if
• whether and if
• whether... or...
• which, what and who: question words
• who ever, what ever, how ever etc
• whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever and wherever
• will
• wish
• worth ... -ing
• would
• would rather
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